Welcome to my second writeup for Ghost in the Shellcode 2015! This writeup is for the one and only Web level, "aart" (download it). I wanted to do a writeup for this one specifically because, even though the level isn't super exciting, the solution was actually a pretty obscure vulnerability type that you don't generally see in CTFs: a race condition!
But we'll get to that after, first I want to talk about a wrong path that I spent a lot of time on. :)
As many of you know, last weekend was Ghost in the Shellcode 2015! There were plenty of fun challenges, and as always I had a great time competing! This will be my first of four writeups, and will be pretty simple (since it simply required me to use a tool that already exists (and that I wrote :) ))
The level was called "knockers". It's a simple python script that listens on an IPv6 UDP port and, if it gets an appropriately signed request, opens one or more other ports. The specific challenge gave you a signed token to open port 80, and challenged you to open up port 7175. The service itself listened on port 8008 ("BOOB", to go with the "knockers" name :) ).
You can download the original level here (Python).
You probably heard this week about 5 million @gmail.com accounts posted. I've been researching it independently, and was hoping for some community help (this is completely unrelated to the fact that I work at Google - I just like passwords).
I'm reasonably sure that the released list is an amalgamation of a bunch of other lists and breaches. But I don't know what ones - that's what I'm trying to find out!
Which brings me to how you can help: people who can recognize which site their password came from. I'm trying to build a list of which breaches were aggregated to create this list, in the hopes that I can find breaches that were previously unreported!
If you want to help:
1. Check your email address on https://haveibeenpwned.com/
2. If you're in the list, email email@example.com from the associated account
3. I'll tell you the password that was associated with that account
4. And, most importantly, you tell me which site you used that password on!
In a couple days/weeks (depending on how many responses I get), I'll release the list of providers!
Thanks! And, as a special 'thank you' to all of you, here are the aggregated passwords from the breach! And no, I'm not going to release (or keep) the email list. :)
Every once in awhile, I like to post something random here. This is another one of those times. If you want some real security info, move along now. :)
This is a story about a random locked hatch I found in the middle of a field. Originally it was just neat, but after the "Safe" incident and the creating of /r/whatsinthisthing, I realized I had to learn more. What did it contain? Tunnels? Treasure? Dragons? A valve? I didn't know, but I had to find out!
(spoiler: it wasn't a dragon)
This is my writeup for byhd, a 2-point challenge from the Defcon Qualifier CTF. You can get the files, including my annotated assembly file, here. This is my second (and final) writeup for the Defcon Qualifiers, you can find the writeup for shitsco here.
This was a reverse engineering challenge where code would be constructed based on your input, then executed. You had to figure out the exact right input to generate a payload that would give you access to the server (so, in a way, there was some exploitation involved).
Up till now, cnot from PlaidCTF has probably been my favourite hardcore reversing level, but I think this level has taken over. It was super fun!
Apparently this blog has become a CTF writeup blog! Hopefully you don't mind, I still try to keep all my posts educational.
Anyway, this is the first of two writeups for the Defcon CTF Qualifiers (2014). I only completed two levels, both of which were binary reversing/exploitation! This particular level was called "shitsco", and was essentially a use-after-free vulnerability. You can download the level, as well as my annotated IDA file, here.
This is my last writeup for PlaidCTF! You can get a list of all my writeups here. Kappa is a 275-point pwnable level called Kappa, and the goal is to capture a bunch of Pokemon and make them battle each other!
Ultimately, this issue came down to a type-confusion bug that let us read memory and call arbitrary locations. Let's see why!
I know in my last blog I promised to do a couple exploit ones instead of doing boring Web stuff. But, this level was really easy and I still wanted to do a writeup, so you're just going to have to wait a little while longer for my 'kappa' writeup!
I know what you're thinking of: what's with all the Web levels!?
Well, I was saving the exploitation levels for last! This post will be about Pwnable-200 (ezhp), and the next one will be Pwnable-275 (kappa). You can get the binary for ezhp here, and I highly recommend poking at this if you're interested in exploitation—it's actually one of the easiest exploitation levels you'll find!
This is my writeup for Whatscat, just about the easiest 300-point Web level I've ever solved! I wouldn't normally do a writeup about a level like this, but much like the mtpox level I actually wrote the exact tool for exploiting this, and even wrote a blog post about it almost exactly 4 years ago - April of 2010. Unlike mtpox, this tool isn't the least bit popular, but it sure made my life easy!
This is my second writeup from PlaidCTF this past weekend! It's for the Web level called kpop, and is about how to shoot yourself in the foot by misusing serialization (download the files). There are at least three levels I either solved or worked on that involved serialization attacks (mtpox, reeekeeeeee, and this one), which is awesome because this is a seriously undersung attack. Good on the PPP!
This is going to be my first of a couple writeups about this past weekend's CTF: PlaidCTF!
My first writeup is for a 150-point Web level called mtpox. I chose this one to do first not only because it's the first level I completed, but also because the primary vulnerability was a hash extension issue, and I wrote one of most popular tools for exploiting those. So it's like the level made for me!
(Actually, there's another level that I wrote a less popular tool for. I'll talk about that one in my next post. :) )
It's a little bit late coming, but this is my writeup for the Fuzzy level from the Ghost in the Shellcode 2014 CTF! I kept putting off writing this, to the point where it became hard to just sit down and do it. But I really wanted to finish before PlaidCTF 2014, which is this weekend so here we are! You can see my other two writeups here (TI-1337) and here (gitsmsg).
Like my other writeups, this is a "pwnage" level, and required the user to own a remote server. Unfortunately, because of my slowness, they're no longer running the server, but you can get a copy of the binary at my github page and run it yourself. It's a 64-bit Linux ELF executable. It didn't have ASLR, and DEP would have been
"It's Saturday night; I have no date, a 2L bottle of Shasta, and my all-rush mix tape. Let's rock!"
...that's what I said before I started gitsmsg. I then entered "Rush" into Pandora, and listened to a mix of Rush, Kansas, Queen, Billy Idol, and other 80's rock for the entire level. True story.
Anyway, let's get on with it! Not too long ago I posted my writeup for the 100-level "Pwnage" challenge from Ghost in the Shellcode. Now, it's time to get a little more advanced and talk about the 299-level challenge: gitsmsg. Solved by only 11 teams, this was considerably more challenging.
As before, you can obtain the binary, my annotated IDA database, and exploit code on my Github page
This past weekend was Shmoocon, and you know what that means—Ghost in the Shellcode!
Most years I go to Shmoocon, but this year I couldn't attend, so I did the next best thing: competed in Ghost in the Shellcode! This year, our rag-tag band of misfits—that is, the team who purposely decided not to ever decide on a team name, mainly to avoid getting competitive—managed to get 20th place out of at least 300 scoring teams!
I personally solved three levels: TI-1337, gitsmsg, and fuzzy. This is the first of three writeups, for the easiest of the three: TI-1337—solved by 44 teams.
You can download the binary, as well as the exploit, the IDA Pro files, and everything else worth keeping that I generated, from my Github repository.
Happy New Year, and welcome to 2014!
On a recent trip to Tyson's Corner, VA, I had some time to kill, so I took a careful look at a malware sample that a friend of mine sent to me some time ago, which I believe he originally got off somebody else's hosed system. The plan was for me to investigate it, and I promised him I would; it just took awhile!
Anyways, the sample has a few layers of packing, and I thought it'd be fun/interesting to show you how to unwrap the entire thing to obtain the final payload. I am not going to discuss the payload itself in this post, largely because I haven't spent much time reversing it. Perhaps in the future I'll dig a little deeper, but for now we'll focus on the packing.
I called this sample "lcmw". It stood for something interesting, but I don't really remember what—I may have been drinking when I named it. :)
For those of you who are close to me, you'll know that my life has been crazy lately. Between teaching courses, changing jobs (
here I come, Google!recently started at Google! (I'm slow at posting these :) )), and organizing BSides Winnipeg, I've barely had time to breathe!
Things are still chaotic, of course (in fact, movers were packing up my life as I wrote this), but I wanted to take some time and talk about BSides Winnipeg.
I'll go over the background, the planning, the day-of, and some lessons learned. If you just want to see cool photos, here you go!
One of the worst feelings when playing a capture-the-flag challenge is the hindsight problem. You spend a few hours on a level—nothing like the amount of time I spent on cnot, not by a fraction—and realize that it was actually pretty easy. But also a brainfuck. That's what ROP's all about, after all!
Anyway, even though I spent a lot of time working on the wrong solution (specifically, I didn't think to bypass ASLR for quite awhile), the process we took of completing the level first without, then with ASLR, is actually a good way to show it, so I'll take the same route on this post.
Before I say anything else, I have to thank HikingPete for being my wingman on this one. Thanks to him, we solved this puzzle much more quickly and, for a short time, were in 3rd place worldwide!
When I was at Shmoocon, I saw a talk about how to write an effective capture-the-flag contest. One of their suggestions was to have a tar-pit challenge that would waste all the time of the best player, by giving him a complicated challenge he won't be able to resist. In my opinion, in PlaidCTF, I suspected that "cnot" was that challenge. And I was the sucker, even though I knew it all the way...
(It turns out, after reviewing writeups of other challenges, that most of the challenges were like this; even so, I'm proud to have been sucked in!)
If you want a writeup where you can learn something, I plan to post a writeup for "Ropasaurus" in the next day or two. If you want a writeup about me being tortured as I fought through inconceivable horrors to finish a level and capture the bloody flag, read on! This level wasn't a lot of learning, just brute-force persistence.
Early last week, I posted a blog about padding oracle attacks. I explained them in detail, as simply as I could (without making diagrams, I suck at diagrams). I asked on Reddit about how I could make it easier to understand, and JoseJimeniz suggested working through an example. I thought that was a neat idea, and working through a padding oracle attack by hand seems like a fun exercise!
(Having done it already and writing this introduction afterwards, I can assure you that it isn't as fun as I thought it'd be :) )
I'm going to assume that you've read my previous blog all the way through, and jump right into things!